ADHD is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development as characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. Distinguishing features of ADHD are short attention span and high levels of distractibility for chronological age and developmental level. This condition is also referred to as ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder), which is old terminology.
A diagnosis of ADHD is given based on symptoms of “inattention” or based on symptoms of “hyperactivity and impulsivity.” In addition, “other specified ADHD disorder” or “unspecified ADHD disorder” may be given as a diagnosis when a patient does not meet the full criteria for ADHD but the symptoms still cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
A diagnosis of ADHD based on inattentive symptoms requires that six or more of the following symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months, negatively impacting directly on social and occupational activities. For older adolescents and adults, at least five symptoms are required.
Hyperactivity and Impulsivity
A diagnosis of ADHD based on hyperactive-impulsive symptoms requires that six or more of the following symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months, negatively impacting directly on social and occupational activities. For older adolescents and adults, at least five symptoms are required.
A diagnosis of ADHD based on either inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms requires that several of the symptoms were present prior to age 12. Moreover, there is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with social, academic, or occupational functioning. Also, the symptoms are not better explained by another mental health disorder, substance intoxication, or withdrawal.
Evidence suggests that ADHD occurs in about 5 percent of youth including children and adolescents, and in up to 4 percent of adults. ADHD is at least twice as prevalent in boys than in girls. Symptoms of ADHD are often present by age 3, but the diagnosis is often not made until kindergarten or elementary school.
Mental Health Library Sources:
Information included in all topics of the Mental Health Library comes from the Desk Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-5 and Kaplan & Sadock’s Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry. Complete diagnostic and treatment information may be found within these publications.
Information within the Mental Health Library is not intended to be used for self-diagnosis purposes. Rather, it is provided as a public educational service to make people aware of mental health conditions. Please consult a qualified mental health professional for a diagnosis of any suspected mental health illness.
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