Patients experiencing intense and unpleasant hallucinogen intoxication can be helped by a quiet environment, verbal reassurance, and the passage of time. More rapid relief of intense anxiety is likely after oral administration of 20 mg of diazepam (Valium) or an equivalent dose of a benzodiazepine.
Hallucinogen Persistent Perception Disorder
Treatment for hallucinogen persistent perception disorder is palliative in nature. Pharmacological approaches include long-lasting benzodiazepines, such as clonazepam (Klonopin), anticonvulsants including valproic acid (Depakene), and carbamazepine (Tegretol). Currently, no drug is completely effective in treating symptoms. Behavioral treatment is also necessary. The patient must be instructed to avoid the use of over-the-counter drugs, caffeine, and alcohol, as well as physical and emotional stressors. Marijuana smoke is a particularly strong intensifier of the disorder, even when passively inhaled.
Hallucinogen-induced psychosis benefits from the same treatments as other forms of psychoses. In addition to antipsychotic medications, other effective treatments may include lithium carbonate, carbamazepine, and electroconvulsive therapy. Medical therapies are best applied in the context of supportive, educational, and family therapies.
Phencyclidine (PCP) Use Disorder
Treatment of PCP intoxication aims to address significant medical, behavioral, and psychiatric issues. No drug is known to function as a direct PCP antagonist. Treatment must therefore be supportive and directed at specific symptoms and signs of toxicity. Patients should be treated in an environment that is as quiet and isolated as possible. Because PCP disrupts sensory input, environmental stimuli can cause unpredictable, exaggerated, distorted, or violent reactions. Pharmacological sedation can be accomplished with oral or IM antipsychotics or benzodiazepines.
Mental Health Library Sources:
Information included in all topics of the Mental Health Library comes from the Desk Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-5 and Kaplan & Sadock’s Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry. Complete diagnostic and treatment information may be found within these publications.
Information within the Mental Health Library is not intended to be used for self-diagnosis purposes. Rather, it is provided as a public educational service to make people aware of mental health conditions. Please consult a qualified mental health professional for a diagnosis of any suspected mental health illness.
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